BIM for Sustainable Building Design
Firstly, we need to discuss Building Information Modeling (BIM), what it is, and its potential to Conquer the answer to sustainable design. BIM in and of itself; is known as the process to design buildings and structures on a collaborative level. BIM is Allowing Architects, engineers, and the Construction Industry (AEC) to make changes in real time. It can track the amount of time each person spends working on the project, projecting constructio n costs and timing from the beginning of a building; thus, helping construction meet completion goals better than ever before. It also tells the AEC information right down to what, when, and where the building will need to maintenance. That is the simple definition.
Where is BIM going
In truth, BIM goes so much further; it is difficult to take in all that this has to offer. Other than the genius that has gone into its creation. BIM has been a long time in the making and, seems to be a fluid and ever-evolving form, taking shape into things we had not previously imagined. However, as technology grows, our applications and their abilities are ever expanding too. Where is the future of building information modeling going?
The future of BIM
Well, it is going green; as the future of BIM technology changes along with everything else, it is maturing and growing into something that gives AEC some remarkable power in building design. As if this were not enough, the future of BIM software will be able to integrate with other emerging schemas that focus on building green. Moreover, even upcoming AI implementations; which, will streamline the drafting and how information is changed and entered into the BIM even further.
The future of BIM in construction
Which is excellent, mother earth not only needs it, she is begging for it; and so are the people and animal life. Not only is it great that this is being worked on by concerned AEC, but due to The Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007. Requires that new construction and renovation projects must make sure they are using 55% less energy than other commercial buildings. Furthermore, by 2030, all new facilities have to meet the new standard of net-zero energy buildings.
When BIM optimization is applied
Well, there is BIM, and there is, of course, optimization of the tools you have at your fingertips. The BIM is just a thing, without humans that actively utilize BIM and sustainable construction are optimizing it, without AEC using this valuable tool, it is just another program sitting on a desktop. We, just cannot have that. The power of BIM to grow sustainable homes, structures, and buildings is too powerful to let it sit on the shelf; therefore, it cannot!
In today’s world of pollution, BIM software is the future
In today’s world of pollution, greenhouse gases, energy footprints, and more; tools like this are no longer sitting around on the shelf. With the worlds collective environmental problems, particularly climate change, being a severe global issue; just waiting for the bright minds of today, and technology, to concentrate its efforts on solving this sobering challenge. BIM has the power to change all of this when optimized for today’s sustainable construction. The AEC now realizes how vital BIM for sustainable building design. The AEC also recognizes how badly needed such a powerful tool is and can be. Assisting in this global issue, the aims of BIM are leaning more toward sustainable building design. The future of building information modeling is taking many steps to solve these issues.
BIM Optimization for sustainable building design
Imagine it. Green buildings. There is a subset of BIM Optimization for sustainable and greener buildings. Green Building IML is a subset of the BMI modeling efforts. This subset of optimizing BMI and sustainability; thankfully, is a reality. Many people are not concerned at all with the carbon footprint and pollution that buildings create or perhaps, they have never thought of how much additional energy buildings use. Honestly, it is a staggering amount. Our beloved buildings and structures are releasing over 70% of greenhouse gasses emitted. Moreover, they use a crushing 70% of the energy consumed in the United States alone.
The future of BIM technology and solutions
It does not take much thought to realize this is a staggering amount of energy. Also, it is such a large number; it is obnoxious. Moreover, it is an issue for our climate, air quality, and carbon footprint affecting the entire world. Some of these numbers may be in the USA, but we all know the wind blows across the globe. This fact is not only revolting, most of us realize it is causing health issues and climate change; this is where BMI optimization for sustainable construction comes into play. Making crucial correct decisions regarding sustainable buildings at the initial stage plays a pivotal role in realizing the sustainable building. It is clear why in recent years, BIM has become a favorite approach used for sustainable building design.
The future of BIM and theme of sustainable building
The general theme of a sustainable building is: Use as few resources as possible, not to disturb ecosystems, disrupt natural life rhythms during construction, maintenance, operation and demolition of a building. BIM is a favorite approach to the creation of the sustainable building. Giving the AEC the ability to enter all the geometry, geographic information, spatial relationships, and the properties and quantities of the building elements; which, are saved in its virtual 3D environment. Thus, the ability to apply simulation after simulation while still in the virtual environment. Giving them the ability to verify the performance of their designs. Also, giving them the full use of the future of BIM in construction designs, and find one that works best for the build area and environment. The future of BIM technology and its optimization, and more widespread use may be just what the doctor ordered for the planet, and all of her inhabitants. Taking nature, wildlife, and humans into consideration before a build, will decrease not only the carbon footprint and emissions; but the effect the buildings have on our emotions and how we have finally come to value simple things such as clean air, environment, and wildlife habitat erosion.
Of course, these changes cannot happen overnight. However, it creates hope and the possibility of change; that things can and will be better for our lives and the lives of our future generations in general because of the unique technology of building information technology.
In this tutorial, over head water tank analysis will be done using STAAD.Pro V8i. The detailed procedure is given below.
Open STAAD.Pro V8i and create a new Space structure with Meter and KiloNewton as Length Units and Force Units.
Select the Beam page under Geometry tab; the Snap Node/Beam window is displayed.
Close the Snap Node/Beam window.
In the Nodes window, create the nodes with the data given below. Figure-1 shows the nodes created.
Figure-1 The Nodes created
Now, we will create the members in the upward direction so that the plates could be created with the same orientation. If the plates are created in different orientation, you cannot assign a single load case to plates with different orientations.
Create the members with the data given below. Figure-2 shows the members created.
|Beam||Node A||Node B|
Figure-2 The Members created
Now, we will create a segment of the tank using the Circular Repeat tool.
Select all the members and then choose the Circular Repeat tool from the Geometry menu; the 3D Circular dialog box is displayed.
Enter the values as shown in Figure-3.
Figure-3 The 3D Circular dialog box
Choose the OK button; the model will be repeated at 20 degrees with rotational axis as Y-axis.
Select all the members and then select the Create Infill Plates option from the Geometry menu; the plates will be automatically created in the areas enclosed by the members.
Select the outer periphery beams as shown in Figure-4 and delete them.
Figure-4 Periphery beams to be deleted
Now, we will apply loads to the plates.
Select the Loads & Definition page from the General tab; the Load & Definition window is displayed.
Select the Load Cases Details node in the Load & Definition window and choose the Add button; the Add New: Load Cases dialog box is displayed with the Primary node selected by default.
Select the Fluids option from the Loading Type drop-down list and enter Fluid Loads in the Title text box.
Choose the Add button; the primary load case will be created under the Load Case Details node of the Load & Definition window. Close the Add New: Load Cases dialog box.
Select the newly created Fluid Loads load case and choose the Add button from the Load & Definition window; the Add New: Load Items dialog box is displayed.
Select the Plate Loads node in the Add New: Load Items dialog box; the Pressure on Full Plate page is displayed by default.
Enter -76 as load intensity in the W1 text box and select GY as the load direction. Choose the Add button; the load is added under the Fluid Loads load case.
Select the Hydrostatic page from the Plate Loads node in the Add New: Load Items dialog box; the Hydrostatic page is displayed.
The options are unavailable as no plates are selected.
Choose the Select Plate(s) button from the Add New: Load Items dialog box; the Selected Items dialog box is displayed.
Choose the Plates cursor and select the plate as shown in Figure-5; the plate number is displayed in the Selected Items(s) dialog box.
Figure-5 The selected plate onto which load is applied
Choose the Done button from the Selected Items(s) dialog box; the Selected Items(s) dialog box is closed and the options are available in the Hydrostatic page.
Enter -53.9 in the W1 edit box and -0.009 in the W2 edit box.
Select the Y and Local Z radio buttons in the Interpolate along Global Axis and Direction of pressure areas, respectively.
Choose the Add button; the load is added under the Fluid Loads load case.
Similarly, add the hydrostatic load of the magnitude ranging from -53.9 to -66.4 kN/m2 on the plate just below the vertical plate, as shown in Figure-6.
Figure-6 The selected plate onto which load is applied
Now we will assign the uniform pressure created in previous steps onto the bottom plate of tank.
Select the uniform pressure load and assign it to the plate as shown in Figure-7.
Figure-7 The load applied onto the bottom most plate
Create a new load case for dead loads and add self weight and a uniform load for railing. The railing will be placed onto the beam situated at the edge of the cantilever plate, as shown in Figure-8.
Figure-8 The self weight and railing load applied
Now we will provide sectional properties to the model.
Select the Properties page from the General tab; the Properties – Whole Structure window is displayed.
Choose the Thickness button from the Properties – Whole Structure window; the Plate Element/Surface Property dialog box is displayed.
Enter 0.15 as thickness in the Node 1 edit box and make sure that the Concrete option is selected from the Material drop-down list. Choose the Add button; the Plate Element/Surface Property dialog box is closed.
Select the Assign to View radio button from the Properties – Whole Structure window and then choose the Assign button; the property is assigned to each plate created.
Choose the Define button from the Properties – Whole Structure window; the Property dialog box is displayed.
Select the Rectangle node; the Rectangle page is displayed. Enter 0.45 and 0.30 in the YD and ZD edit boxes respectively.
Choose the Add button; the Property dialog box is closed and the property is added to the Properties – Whole Structure window.
Assign the newly created property to the members in the model.
Similarly, assign a cross sectional property of 0.15m x 0.15m to the member carrying railing load.
Figure-9 Properties added and assigned to the model
Select the Support page from the General tab; the Supports – Whole Structure window is displayed.
Choose the Create button; the Create Support dialog box is displayed with the Fixed tab chosen by default.
Choose the Add button; the fixed support is added to the Supports – Whole Structure window.
Assign the fixed support created to the lowermost nodes, as shown in Figure-10.
Figure-10 Fixed supports added to the model
Select the plates and members using the Geometry Cursor and choose the Circular Repeat option from the Geometry menu; the 3D Circular dialog box is displayed.
Enter the values as shown in Figure-11.
Figure-11 The 3D Circular dialog box
Choose the OK button; the model will be repeated at 360 degrees with rotational axis as Y-axis
Figure-12 shows the water tank created.
Figure-12 Model of water tank created
Figure-13 and Figure-14 shows the 3D rendered views of the water tank.
Figure-13 3D rendered view of the water tank model
Figure-14 3D rendered view of the water tank model
Now, we will analyze the model created.
Select the Perform Analysis option from the Analysis fly-out in the Commands menu; the Perform Analysis dialog box is displayed.
Close the Perform Analysis dialog box and select the Run Analysis option from the Analyze menu; the STAAD Analysis and Design window is displayed showing the progress of solution.
Once the analysis is complete; select the Go to Post Processing Mode radio button and choose the Done button; the Results Setup dialog box is displayed.
Choose the Apply and the OK button; the post-processing mode is displayed along with various results.
Choose the Plate tab; the Diagrams dialog box is displayed.
In the Diagrams dialog box, select the MY (local) option from the Stress type drop-down list and choose the OK button; the stress contours is visible in the model along with the legend.
Figure-15 shows the MY (local) stress contours in the model.
Figure-15 MY (local) stress contours of the model
Similarly, you can view various other stress contours for the plate elements.